付加物简单介绍:

  该付加物选拔精密行星滚柱丝杆传动本领,内置无刷伺服电机,适用于具备低、中、高等品质必要的位移调节类别。该付加物将放手无刷伺服电机与滚柱丝杆传动构造融为生龙活虎体,伺服电机转子的团团转运动一直通过滚柱丝杠机构转变为推杆的直线运动。该产物可依附客商的需要举行脾气化定克服务。

  The product uses precision planetary roller screw drive technology,
built-in brushless servo motor,applicable to a low,medium and
high-level performance motion control system. The product will be built
integrated brushless servo motor and ball screw drive structure, servo
motor rotor rotary motion into linear motion directly by putting a ball
screw mechanism. The product can be customized according to customer
demand for personalized service.

出品特色:


1、质量优质,寿命长,维护花销低; 2、负载大,刚性好;

笔记

3、发热量小,速度调控精度高; 4、布局紧密,外形姣好,应用范围广;

5、安装灵活,易拆卸维修;

主机总体质量参数 OVERALL TECHNICAL DATA

 

from 

基本型号

Model

行程

Range

导程

Extent

最大载荷

Load

重量

Weight

HB IES-130

0-200mm

3mm/5mm/7.5mm

70KN

19KG

HB IES-100

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

16KN

11KG

HB IES-80

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

9KN

6.5KG

手臂的宏图限定:   20磅的最努力和30英寸磅的扭矩

 

种种手部组件总共具备拾四个自由度,并且由前臂,多个DOF腕部以致具有地方,速度和力传感器的拾个DOF手组成。

前臂的底层直径为4英寸,长度约8英寸,容纳全体十八台电机,

手部配备了四十一个传感器(不包涵触觉感测)。//
各类问题都配有嵌入式绝对地点传感器,// 每一种电机都配有增量式编码器。//
每一种导螺纹钢筋组件以至手腕球关节连杆均被器具为应力传感器以提供力反馈。

千古的手工业设计[4,5]选拔了动用复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,那二种装置在EVA空间景况中应用时都会以致严重的损坏和可信性难点。为了制止与肌腱有关的题目,手使用柔性轴将电力以前臂的马达传输到手指。使用微型模块化导螺杆组件将柔性轴的旋转运动转变为手中的直线运动。结果是贰个牢牢而不衰的传动系。


英文

from 

Robonaut’s hands set it apart from any previous space manipulator
system. These hands can fit into all the same places currently designed
for an astronaut’s gloved hand. A key feature of the hand is its palm
degree of freedom that allows Robonaut to cup a tool and line up its
long axis with the roll degree of freedom of the forearm, thereby,
permitting tool use in tight spaces with minimum arm motion. Each hand
assembly shown in figure 3 has a total of 14 DOFs, and consists of a
forearm, a two DOF wrist, and a twelve DOF hand complete with position,
velocity, and force sensors. The forearm, which measures four inches in
diameter at its base and is approximately eight inches long, houses all
fourteen motors, the motor control and power electronics, and all of the
wiring for the hand. An exploded view of this assembly is given in
figure 4. Joint travel for the wrist pitch and yaw is designed to meet
or exceed that of a human hand in a pressurized glove. Page 2 Figure 4:
Forearm Assembly The requirements for interacting with planned space
station EVA crew interfaces and tools provided the starting point for
the Robonaut Hand design [1]. Both power and dexterous grasps are
required for manipulating EVA crew tools. Certain tools require single
or multiple finger actuation while being firmly grasped. A maximum force
of 20 lbs and torque of 30 in-lbs are required to remove and install EVA
orbital replaceable units (ORUs) [2]. The hand itself consists of two
sections (figure 5) : a dexterous work set used for manipulation, and a
grasping set which allows the hand to maintain a stable grasp while
manipulating or actuating a given object. This is an essential feature
for tool use [3]. The dexterous set consists of two 3 DOF fingers
(index and middle) and a 3 DOF opposable thumb. The grasping set
consists of two, single DOF fingers (ring and pinkie) and a palm DOF.
All of the fingers are shock mounted into the palm. In order to match
the size of an astronaut’s gloved hand, the motors are mounted outside
the hand, and mechanical power is transmitted through a flexible drive
train. Past hand designs [4,5] have used tendon drives which utilize
complex pulley systems or sheathes, both of which pose serious wear and
reliability problems when used in the EVA space environment. To avoid
the problems associated with tendons, the hand uses flex shafts to
transmit power from the motors in the forearm to the fingers. The rotary
motion of the flex shafts is converted to linear motion in the hand
using small modular leadscrew assemblies. The result is a compact yet
rugged drive train. Figure 5: Hand Anatomy Overall the hand is equipped
with forty-two sensors (not including tactile sensing). Each joint is
equipped with embedded absolute position sensors and each motor is
equipped with incremental encoders. Each of the leadscrew assemblies as
well as the wrist ball joint links are instrumented as load cells to
provide force feedback. In addition to providing standard impedance
control, hand force control algorithms take advantage of the
non-backdriveable finger drive train to minimize motor power
requirements once a desired grasp force is achieved. Hand primitives in
the form of pre-planned trajectories are available to minimize operator
workload when performing repeated tasks.


译文

from 

罗布onaut的手把它与以前的高空垄断器系统区分开来。这一个双臂能够装入近年来为宇宙航银行人士的戴手套而设计的有所同后生可畏的地方。手的壹人命关天个性是它的掌心自由度,使得罗布onaut能够用三个工具和长轴与前臂的自由度进行排列,进而允许工具在狭窄的长空中以微小的臂膀运动应用。

图3中所示的各种手部组件总共具备拾四个自由度,而且由前臂,七个DOF腕部以至有着位置,速度和力传感器的十二个DOF手组成。前臂的底层直径为4英寸,长度大概8英寸,容纳全部十三台电机,电机调控和电力电子器具,以至独具手持线路。图4提交了该器件的讲解图。手段节距和偏航的合作路程被设计为在加压手套中到达或超过人口。

图4:前臂装配与安排的空间站EVA乘员接口和工具交互作用的渴求为罗布onaut手的统筹提供了源点[1]。垄断EVA乘员组织工作具须要力量和灵活的抓握。有个别工具必要单臂或多手指动作,同不通常候牢牢牢牢抓紧。拆卸和安装EVA轨道可替换单元(ORU)需求20磅的最努力和30英寸磅的扭矩[2]。

手由两有个别构成(图5):三个用于操作的灵敏专门的职业组,以致叁个抓握组件,它同意手在调节或运行给定物体时保持平静的抓握。那是工具使用的基本特征[3]。灵巧套装由三个3
DOF手指(食指和中指)和一个3
DOF可对折手指组成。抓握组由四个单DOF手指(无名指和小指)和两个手掌自由度组成。所有的指头都被安装在手心上。为了协作宇宙航银行职员戴初阶套的手的轻重,电机安装在手外,机械引力通过柔性传动系传递。

千古的手工业设计[4,5]采纳了利用复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,这两种装置在EVA空间情形中应用时都会以致惨痛的损伤和可信赖性难点。为了幸免与肌腱有关的难点,手使用柔性轴将电力早先臂的马达传输到手指。使用Mini模块化导螺纹钢筋组件将柔性轴的转动运动转变为手中的直线运动。结果是多少个严酷而抓实的传动系。

图5:手部解剖同理可得,手部配备了四十多少个传感器(不包蕴触觉感测)。种种接头都配有嵌入式相对地方传感器,每一种电机都配有增量式编码器。各样导螺纹钢筋组件以至手段球关节连杆均被道具为称重传感器以提供力反馈。除了提供专门的工作阻抗调整之外,豆蔻梢头旦达到规定的规范梦想的抓力,手力调节算法利用非反向驱入手指驱动系统来节省电机能源消耗渴求。预先规划的轨道格局的手原语可用以在奉行重复义务时最大限度地回降操作员的职业量。


Design of the NASA Robonaut Hand R1

C. S. Lovchik, H. A. Aldridge RoboticsTechnology Branch NASA Johnson
Space Center Houston, Texas 77058 Iovchik@jsc.nasa.gov,
haldridg@ems.jsc.nasa.gov Fax: 281-244-5534

Abstract

The design of a highly anthropomorphichuman scale robot hand for space
based operations is described. This fivefinger hand combined with its
integrated wrist and forearm has fourteenindependent degrees of freedom.
The device approximates very well thekinematics and required strength of
an astronaut’s hand when operating througha pressurized space suit
glove. The mechanisms used to meet these requirementsare explained in
detail along with the design philosophy behind them.Integration
experiences reveal the challenges associated with obtaining therequired
capabilities within the desired size. The initial finger controlstrategy
is presented along with examples of obtainable grasps.

陈述了用于空间操作的惊人拟人化的人类尺度机器人手的设计。那七个手指手与其构成的一手和前臂相结合,具备十多个单身的自由度。

该装置在经过加压式太空服手套操作时可极其好地肖似于宇宙航银行人员的手的运动学和所需的强度。详细分解了用于满意这一个供给的编制及其背后的规划观念。集成资历揭破了与收获所需大小内的所需功用有关的挑战。展现开端手指调整计策甚至可收获的抓握的事例。

 1 Introduction

The requirements for extra-vehicularactivity (EVA) onboard the
International Space Station (ISS) are expected to beconsiderable. These
maintenance and construction activities are expensive andhazardous.
Astronauts must prepare extensively before they may leave therelative
safety of the space station, including pre-breathing at space suit
airpressure for up to 4 hours. Once outside, the crew person must be
extremelycautious to prevent damage to the suit. The Robotic Systems
Technology Branchat the NASA Johnson Space Center is currently
developing robot systems toreduce the EVA burden on space station crew
and also to serve in a rapidresponse capacity. One such system, Robonaut
is being designed and built tointerface with external space station
systems that only have human interfaces.To this end, the Robonaut hand
[1] provides a high degree of anthropomorphicdexterity ensuring a
compatibility with many of these interfaces. Many groundbreaking
dexterous robot hands [2-7] have been developed over the past
twodecades. These devices make it possible for a robot manipulator to
grasp andmanipulate objects that are not designed to be robotically M.
A. DiftlerAutomation and Robotics Department Lockheed Martin Houston,
Texas 77058 diftler@jsc.nasa.gov Fax: 281-244-5534 compatible. While
several grippers [8-12] havebeen designed for space use and some even
tested in space [8,9,11], nodexterous robotic hand has been flown in
EVA conditions. The Robonaut Hand isone of several hands [13,14] under
development for space EVA use and is closestin size and capability to a
suited astronaut’s hand.

前瞻国际空间站(ISS)上的车外活动(EVA)须要极其可观。那么些保卫安全定谐和建设活动是高昂且危险的。宇宙航行员必须在大概离开空间站的周旋安全在此之前行行广泛的备选,满含预先呼吸太空服空气压力长达4钟头。生机勃勃旦在窗外,机组职员必得拾贰分谨慎,防止杀跌坏宇宙航行服。U.S.国家航空宇航局Johnson航鸣蜩央的机器人系统技巧处近期正在开辟机器人系统,以削减空间站人士的EVA肩负,並且服务于急忙反应技巧。三个如此的系统,罗布onaut正在设计和建筑,以便与独有人机分界面包车型客车外表空间站系统接口。为此,罗布onaut手[1]提供了冲天的比喻灵巧性,以管教与广大这么些接口的宽容性。在过去的三十年中,已经开辟精湛多破纪录的利落机器人手[2-7]。那一个设施使得机器人垄断(monopoly卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)器能够吸引和决定未被设计为机器人的实体包容。即便有多少个夹具[8-12]规划用来空间应用,有个别以致在满午月进行了测量检验[8,9,11],但从不灵巧的机械人手在EVA条件下飞行。
罗布onaut手是空中EVA使用中正在开荒的多只手之生龙活虎[13,14],它的尺码和力量最临近切合宇宙航银行职员的手。

 2 Design and Control Philosophy

The requirements for interacting withplanned space station EVA crew
interfaces and tools provided the starting pointfor the Robonaut Hand
design [1]. Both power (enveloping) and dexterous grasps(finger tip)
are required for manipulating EVA crew tools. Certain toolsrequire
single or multiple finger actuation while being firmly grasped. Amaximum
force of 20 lbs. and torque of 30 in-lbs are required to remove
andinstall EVA orbital replaceable units (ORUs) [15]. All EVA tools
and ORUs mustbe retained in the event of a power loss. It is possible to
either buildinterfaces that will be both robotically and EVA compatible
or build a seriesof robot tools to interact with EVA crew interfaces and
tools. However, bothapproaches are extremely costly and will of course
add to a set of spacestation tools and interfaces that are already
planned to be quite extensive.The Robonaut design will make all EVA crew
interfaces and tools roboticallycompatible by making the robot’s hand
EVA compatible. EVA compatibility isdesigned into the hand by
reproducing, as closely.as possible, the size,kinematics, and strength
of the space suited astronaut hand and wrist. Thenumber of fingers and
the joint travel reproduce the workspace for apressurized suit glove.
The Robonaut Hand reproduces many of the necessarygrasps needed for
interacting with EVA interfaces. Staying within this sizeenvelope
guarantees that the Robonaut Hand will be able to fit into all
therequired places. Joint travel for the wrist pitch and yaw is designed
to meetor exceed the human hand in a pressurized glove. The hand and
wrist parts are  sizedto reproduce the necessary strength to meet
maximum EVA crew requirements.Figure1: Robonaut Hand Control system
design for a dexterous robot handmanipulating a variety of tools has
unique problems. The majority of theliterature available, summarized in
[2,16], pertains to dexterous manipulation.This literature
concentrates on using three dexterous fingers to obtain forceclosure and
manipulate an object using only fingertip contact. While useful,this
type of manipulation does not lend itself to tool use. Most EVA tools
arebest used in an enveloping grasp. Two enveloping grasp types, tool
and power,must be supported by the tool-using hand in addition to the
dexterous grasp.Although literature is available on enveloping grasps
[17], it is not asadvanced as the dexterous literature. The main
complication involvesdetermining and controlling the forces at the many
contact areas involved in anenveloping grasp. While work continues on
automating enveloping grasps, a tele-operationcontrol strategy has been
adopted for the Robonaut hand. This method ofoperation was proven with
the NASA DART/FITT system [18]. The DART/FITT systemutilizes Cyber
glove® virtual reality gloves, worn by the operator, to
controlStanford/YPL hands to successfully perform space relevant tasks.
2.1 SpaceCompatibility EVA space compatibility separates the Robonaut
Hand from manyothers. All component materials meetoutgassing
restrictions to prevent contamination that couldinterfere with other
space systems. Parts made of different materials aretoleranced to
perform acceptably under the extreme temperature variationsexperienced
in EVA conditions. Brushless motors are used to ensure long life ina
vacuum. All parts are designed to use proven space lubricants.

与布置的空间站EVA乘员接口和工具交互的渴求为罗布onaut手设计必要提供了起源[1]。

操纵EVA乘工作者具要求技艺(包络)和灵活的抓握(指尖)。有个别工具须要双手或多手指动作,同期牢牢吸引。
20磅的最大力量。并索要30英寸磅的扭矩来拆迁和装置EVA轨道可更动单元(ORU)[15]。

有着EVA工具和ORU必得在发生断电时保留。能够构建包容机器人和EVA的接口,或许营造后生可畏层层机器人工具来与EVA机组接口和工具实行交互作用。不过,这三种方式都以可怜高昂的,并且当然会增加风姿浪漫套空间站工具和接口,这一个工具和接口已经安排得拾壹分布满。
罗布onaut设计将使机器人的手EVA包容,进而使全部EVA机组人机分界面和工具机器人包容。通过尽恐怕地再次出现切合宇宙航银行职员手和手段的空中的尺寸,运动学和强度,将EVA包容性设计在手中。手指和协助进行路程的数量重现了加压套装手套的劳作空间。
Robonaut手掌再次出现了与EVA分界面交互作用所需的无数必备手腕。保持在这里个尺寸范围内保证罗布onaut手将能够适应全部需求的地点。手腕节距和偏航的合营路程被规划为在加压手套中完成或当先人口。手部和腕部的尺寸能够复出必要的强度,以知足最大的EVA机组职员的渴求。

图1:罗布onaut手控系统设计灵巧的机器人手操纵各个工具具备极度的主题材料。在[2,16]中总计的大好多文献都涉嫌到灵巧的调控。这一个文献集中于选取多个灵巧手指来收获力闭合并仅使用手指接触来决定物体。纵然有用,但那连串型的操作不适用于工具使用。大大多EVA工具最切合用来包围式抓握。除了灵巧的抓握之外,还必得运用工具用手来支持二种包络抓握类型,工具和力量。即便文献可用于包络抓握[17],但它并不像灵巧手那样先进。首要的纷纷包含分明和操纵关系包络抓握的累累触及区域的力。固然自动化包络抓握的劳作仍在三番三回,但罗布onaut手已使用远程操作调整攻略。美利坚同盟军国家航空宇航局DART
/ BoraT系统验证了这种操作方法[18]。 DART /
SANTANAT系统运用由操作员佩戴的Cyber​​glove®设想现实手套来调节Stanford /
YPL手以成功实行空间相关职务。

 2.1空间宽容性EVA空间包容性将Robonaut手与别的众五个人分手。全部组件材质均满意除气限定,以幸免恐怕烦闷其余空间种类的传染。区别材料制作而成的零件在EVA条件下经受极端温度变化时拥有可选拔的性质。无刷电机用于确定保证真空中的长寿命。全数零零部件都陈设为运用经过认证的上空光滑油。

 3 Design

The Robonaut Hand (figure 1) has a total offourteen degrees of freedom.
It consists of a forearm which houses the motorsand drive electronics, a
two degree of freedom wrist, and a five finger, twelvedegree of freedom
hand. The forearm, which measures four inches in diameter atits base and
is approximately eight inches long, houses all fourteen motors,
12separate circuit boards, and all of the wiring for the hand. Y= Figure
2: Handcomponents The hand itself is broken down into two sections
(figure 2): adexterous work set which is used for manipulation, and a
grasping set whichallows the hand to maintain a stable grasp while
manipulating or actuating agiven object. This is an essential feature
for tool use [13]. The dexterous setconsists of two three degree of
freedom fingers (pointer and index) and a threedegree of freedom
opposable thumb. The grasping set consists of two, one degreeof freedom
fingers (ring and pinkie) and a palm degree of freedom. All of
thefingers are shock mounted into the palm (figure 2). In order to match
the sizeof an astronaut’s gloved hand, the motors are mounted outside
the hand, andmechanical power is transmitted through a flexible drive
train. Past handdesigns [2,3] have used tendon drives which utilize
complex pulley systems orsheathes, both of which pose serious wear and
reliability problems when used inthe EVA space environment. To avoid the
problems associated with tendons, thehand uses flex shafts to transmit
power from the motors in the forearm to the fingers. The rotary motionof
the flex shafts is converted to linear motion in the hand using
smallmodular leadscre was semblies. The result is acompact yet rugged
drive train.Over all the hand is equipped with forty-three sensors not
including tactilesensing. Each joint is equipped with embedded absolute
position sensors andeach motor is  equipped with incrementalencoders.
Each of the leadscrew assemblies as well as the wristball joint linksare
instrumented as load cells to provide force feedback.

3设计

罗布onaut手(图1)总共有贰十个自由度。

它由具有电机和驱动电子装置的膀子,八个自由度的花招和

叁个五指,十四自由度的手组成。

前臂的尾部直径为4英寸,长度约8英寸,可容纳全部十七个电机,11个独立电路板以致全部手部布线。

手部组件手部自己分为两有些。三个用以操作的灵活专门的学业组(食指和中指),以致三个抓握组(无名指和小指),它同意手在操作或运维给定时保保持平衡稳的抓握指标。那是工具使用的基本特征[13]。

灵巧组由三个三自由度手指(食指和中指)和三个三度自由周旋拇指组成。抓握组由三个,一个自由度指(无名氏指和小指)和二个手掌自由度组成。全体的手指头都被安装在手心上(图2)。

为了协作宇宙航银行人员戴初步套的手的轻重,电机安装在手外,机械引力通过柔性传动系传递。过去的手工业设计[2,3]利用了运用复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,那二种装置在EVA空间蒙受中行使时都会引致悲惨的破坏和可信赖性难点。为了幸免与肌腱有关的难点,手使用柔性轴将电力以前臂的电机传输到手指。柔性轴的转动运动机原因此微型模块化导丝调换到手中的线性运动。结果是紧密而安如泰山的传动系。

持有的手都陈设了肆13个(不包罗触觉)传感器。各个接头都配有嵌入式绝对地方传感器,每一种电机都配有增量式编码器。各种导螺纹钢筋组件以至手腕关节连杆均被武装为称重传感器以提供力反馈。

3.1

Finger Drive Train

Figure 3: Finger leadscrew assembly Thefinger drive consists of a
brushless DC motor equipped with an encoder and a 14to 1 planetary gear
head. Coupled to the motors are stainless steel highflexibility flex
shafts. The flex shafts are kept short in order to minimizevibration and
protected by a sheath consisting of an open spring covered withTeflon.
At the distal end of the flex shaft is a small modular leadscrewassembly
(figure 3). This assembly converts the rotary motion of the flex shaftto
linear motion. The assembly includes: a leadscrew which has a flex
shaftconnection and bearing seats cut into it, a shell which is designed
to act as aload cell, support bearings, a nut with rails that mate with
the shell (inorder to eliminate off axis loads), and a short cable
length which attaches tothe nut. The strain gages are mounted on the
flats of the shell indicated infigure 3. The top of the leadscrew
assemblies are clamped into the palm of thehand to allow the shell to
stretch or compress under load, thereby giving adirect reading of force
acting on the fingers. Earlier models _of the assemblycontained an
integral reflective encoder cut into the leadscrew. This
configurationworked well but was eliminated from the hand in order to
minimize the wiring inthe hand.

Figure 4: Dexterous finger

3.1指尖传动系统

图3:手指引螺纹钢筋组件

手指驱动器蕴含

         八个布置编码器和

         14:1行星齿轮头的无刷直流动机。

与发动机耦合的是不锈钢高柔性软轴。

         柔性轴保持比较短以减小震荡,

         并经过由聚四氟混合苯覆盖的谈话弹簧组成的护套举行爱戴。

在柔性轴的远端是三个Mini模块化螺纹钢筋组件(图3)。该构件将柔性轴的转动运动调换为直线运动。该器件包涵:

         叁个丝杠,它有着三个柔性轴连接和切入个中的轴承座,

         三个规划作为马里尼奥传感器的外壳,支撑轴承,

        
叁个包蕴与外壳合作的导轨的螺母(为了打消轴负载)甚至总是到螺母上的短丝缆长度。    
马里尼奥传感器安装在图3所示的壳体的平面上。将丝杠组件的最上部夹紧在掌心中,以允许壳体在负载下打开或回退,进而一直读取效率于手指。

        
组件的较早型号还包蕴切入导螺丝杆的全体式反射编码器。这种布置运营卓越,但新兴从手中删除,以尽量缩短手中的接线。

图4:灵巧的指头

3.2

Dexterous Fingers

 Thethree degree of freedom dexterous fingers (figure 4) include the
finger mount,a yoke, two proximal finger segment half shells, a
decoupling link assembly, amid finger segment, a distal finger segment,
two connecting links, and springsto eliminate backlash (not shown in
figure). Figure 5 Finger base cam The basejoint of the finger has two
degrees of freedom: yaw (+ /- 25 degrees) and pitch(I00 degrees). These
motions are provided by two leadscrew assemblies that workin a
differential manner. The short cables that extend from the
leadscrewassemblies attach into the cammed grooves in the proximal
finger segments halfshells (figure 5). The use of cables eliminates a
significant number of jointsthat would otherwise be needed to handle the
two degree of freedom base joint.The cammed grooves control the bend
radius of the connecting cables from theleadscrew assemblies (keeping it
larger to avoid stressing the cables andallowing oversized cables to be
used). The grooves also allow a nearly constantlever arm to be
maintained throughout the full range of finger motion. Becausethe
connecting cables are kept short (approximately I inch) and their
bendradius is controlled (allowing the cables to be relatively large in
diameter(.07 inches)), the cables act like stiff rods in the working
direction (closingtoward the palm) and like springs in the opposite
direction. In other words,the ratio of the cable length to its

diameter is such that the cables are stiff enough to push the finger
openbut if the finger contacts or impacts anobject the cables will
buckle, allowing the finger to collapse out of the way.

 Figure 6: Decoupling link The second and thirdjoints of the dexterous
fingers are directly linked so that they close withequal angles. These
joints are driven by a separate leadscrew assembly througha decoupling
linkage (figure 6). The short cable on the leadscrew assembly isattached
to the pivoting cable termination in the decoupling link. The flex inthe
cable allows the actuation to pass across the two degree of freedom
basejoint, without the need for complex mechanisms. The linkage is
designed so thatthe arc length of the cable is nearly constant
regardless of the position ofthe base joint (compare arc A to arc B in
figure 6). This makes the motion ofdistal joints approximately
independent of the base joint. figure 2 has aproximal and distal segment
and is similar in design to the dexterous fingersbut has significantly
more yaw travel and a hyper extended pitch. The thumb isalso mounted to
the palm at such an angle that the increase in range of motionresults in
a reasonable emulation of human thumb motion. This type of
mountingenables the hand to perform grasps that are not possible with
the common practiceof mounting the thumb directly opposed to the fingers
[2,3,14]. The thumb basejoint has 70 degrees of yaw and 110 degrees of
pitch. The distal joint has 80degrees of pitch. Linkages Finger Mount
Figure 7:Grasping Finger The actuationof the base joint is the same as
the dexterous fingers with the exception thatcammed detents have been
added to keep the bend radius of the cable large atthe extreme yaw
angles. The distal segment of the thumb is driven through adecoupling
linkage in a manner similar to that of the manipulating fingers.
Theextended yaw travel of the thumb base makes complete distal
mechanicaldecoupling difficult. Instead the joints are decoupled in
software.

3.2灵活的手指

 多个自由度的灵敏手指(图4)包蕴

         手指支架,

         轭,

         多个近侧手指段半壳,

         解耦连杆组件,

         中指段,

         远侧手指段,

         八个一而再接二连三连杆和弹簧以消亡间隙(未在图中体现)。

图5手指底座凸轮

手指的底座接头具备四个自由度:偏航(+ / –

25度)和俯仰(I00度)。那个移动由两个以分歧方式行事的导螺丝杆组件提供。从螺丝杆组件延伸的短丝缆连接到近端指状部分半壳中的凸轮槽中(图5)。使用丝缆杀绝了拍卖多个自由度尾巴部分接头所需的大方明白。凸轮槽用于调整连接丝缆从导螺纹钢筋组件的波折半径(保持十分的大避防止对丝缆施加压力并同意利用过大的丝缆)。凹槽还同意在总体手指运动范围内保持差十分少恒定的杠杆臂。由于总是丝缆保持非常的短(大致1英寸)并且其卷曲半径受到调整(允许丝缆的直径相对相当大(0.07英寸)),由此丝缆在办事方向上像硬棒同样起效果(临近手掌)和像相反方向的弹簧相仿。换句话说,丝缆长度与其直径的比例使得

         丝缆丰富坚硬以将手指推开,

         但假使手指接触或撞击物体,则丝缆会盘曲,使手指塌陷。

 图6:解耦链接

利落手指的第二和第多少个点子直接相接,以便它们以也就是的角度关闭。那么些接头由一个独立的导螺丝杆组件通过一个分手球联合会面浮动装置驱动(图6)。丝杠组件上的短丝缆连接到去耦链路中的枢轴丝缆终端。丝缆中的屈曲允许致动穿过四个自由度的基部接头,而无需复杂的机关。连杆的两全使得丝缆的弧长度大概恒定,不管基座接头之处怎么(相比较图6中的弧A与弧B)。那使得远端关节的移位大概独立于基部关节。图2具有近端和远端段,并且在布署上临近于灵巧指状物,但全数字展现著越多的偏航行路线程和细长的间隔。拇指也以那样的角度安装在手心上,使得运动范围的增加导致人类拇指活动的合理仿真。这种设置方式得以使手推行抓握,那与日常的将拇指间接放在手指对面包车型大巴规矩比较是不容许的[2,3,14]。拇指基座关节拥有70度偏航和110度俯仰。远端关节有80度的间隔。连杆手指安装图7:抓住手指基座关节的动作与灵巧的手指头相通,但扩展了凸轮式制动器以保全丝缆的波折半径在庞大偏航角度时超大。拇指的远侧部分以近乎于决定手指的点子被驱动通过分离联合浮动装置。拇指基座的扩展偏航行路线程使完全远端机械解耦困难。相反,关节在软件中解耦。

3.5

Palm

3.3

Grasping Fingers

The grasping fingers have three pitchjoints each with 90 degrees of
travel. The fingers are actuated by oneleadscrew assembly and use the
same cam groove (figure 5) in the proximalfinger segment half shell as
with the manipulating fingers. The 7-bar fingerlinkage is similar to
that of the dexterous fingers except that the decouplinglink is removed
and the linkage ties to the finger mount (figure 7). In
thisconfiguration each joint of the finger closes down with
approximately equalangles. An alternative configuration of the finger
that is currently beingevaluated replaces the distal link with a stiff
limited travel spring to allowthe finger to better conform while
grasping an object.

3.5手掌

3.3抓握手指

抓握手指有多个俯仰关节,种种难点都有90度的路途。手指由贰个导螺纹钢筋组件致动,何况在操作指状物的近端手指段半壳中应用同生龙活虎的凸轮槽(图5)。
7-bar指形连杆与灵巧指形的指形连杆相符,不相同之处在于去耦连杆被拆毁并且连杆与手指支架连接(图7)。在此种结构中,手指的各种难题都是大概也就是的角度关闭。当前正在评估的指头的代表配置用刚性有限路程弹簧代替远侧连杆,以允许手指在吸引物体时更加好地契合。

 3.4 Thumb

The thumb is key to obtaining many of thegrasps required for interfacing
with EVA tools. The thumb shown in The palmmechanism (figure 8) provides
a mount for the two grasping fingers and acupping motion that enhances
stability for tool grasps. This allows the hand tograsp an object in a
manner that aligns the tool’s axis with the forearm rollaxis. This is
essential for the use of many common tools, like screwdrivers.The
mechanism includes two pivoting metacarpals, a common shaft, and
twotorsion springs. The grasping fingers and their leadscrew assemblies
mount intothe metacarpals. The metacarpals are attached to the palm on a
common shaft.The first torsion spring is placed between the two
metacarpals providing a pivotingforce between the two. The second
torsion spring is placed between the secondmetacarpal and the palm,
forcing both of the metacarpals back against the palm.The actuating
leadscrew assembly mounts into the palm and the short cableattaches to
the cable termination on the first metacarpal. The torsion springsare
sized such that as the leadscrew assembly pulls down the first
metacarpal, thesecond metacarpal folows a troughly half the angle of the
first. In this waythe palm is able to cup in a way similar to that of
the human hand without thefingers colliding.

Figure 9 Wrist mechanism

 COMMON SHAFT PALM CASTING The wrist isactuated in a differential manner
through two linear actuators (figure 9). Thelinear actuators consist of
a slider riding in recirculating ball tracks and acustom, hollow shaft
brushless DC motor with an integral ballscrew. Theactuators attach to
the palm through ball joint links, which are mounted in thepre-loaded
ball sockets. Figure 8: Palm mechanism The fingers are mounted tothe
palm at slight angles to each other as opposed to the common practice
ofmounting them parallel to each other• This mounting allows the fingers
to closetogether similar to a human hand. To further improve the
reliability andruggedness of the hand, all of the fingers are mounted on
shock loaders. Thisallows them to take very high impacts without
incurring damage.

3.4拇指

大拇指是拿到过多与EVA工具接口所需的握手的主要。手掌机构(图8)中显得的大拇指为四个抓手提供了多个支架,并提供了一个拔??动作,加强了工具抓握的牢固。那允许手以使工具的轴线与前臂挥动轴线对齐的点子吸引物体。那对成千上万常用工具(如改锥)的运用极其首要。该机构包罗八个枢转掌骨,二个一同的轴和三个扭力弹簧。抓手指和她俩的导螺纹钢筋组件安装到掌骨。掌骨连接在相仿根轴上的魔掌上。第叁个扭力弹簧放置在多个掌骨之间,在两个之间提供枢转力。第二个扭力弹簧放置在其次掌骨和手掌之间,倒逼两掌骨靠在掌心上。致动导螺纹钢筋组件安装在掌心中,短丝缆连接到第大器晚成掌骨上的丝缆终端。扭力弹簧的尺码使妥贴导螺丝杆组件拉下第后生可畏掌骨时,第二掌骨以八分之四的角度折叠第生机勃勃掌骨。通过这种方法,手掌能够以与职员肖似的秘技进行盖碗的揉搓而不会爆发手指碰撞。

图9花招机构

 普通轴手掌铸造花招通过八个线性实施器以不相同方法驱动(图9)。线性实行器由多个滑块和一个带有三个完整滚珠丝杠的定制空心轴无刷直流动机组成。试行器通过设置在刚开始阶段加载的球座中的球节连杆连接到手心。图8:手掌机制手指互相以细小的角度安装在掌心上,那与将手指安装在交互作用平行的相仿做法反而。•这种设置使手指能够像人手相仿贴近在联合。为了进一层升高手的可信赖性和稳固性,全部手指都设置在减震垫上。那使他们能够在不引起损坏的气象下收受超级高的震慑。

 3.6 Wrist/Forearm

 Design The wrist (figure 9) provides anunconstrained pass through to
maximize the bend radii for the finger flexshafts while approximating
the wrist pitch and yaw travel of a pressurizedastronaut glove. Total
travel is +/- 70 degrees of pitch and +/- 30 degrees ofyaw. The two axes
intersect with each other and the centerline of the forearmroll axis.
When connected with the Robonaut Arm [19], these three axes combineat
the center of the wrist cuff yielding an efficient kinematic solution.
Thecuff is mounted to the forearm through shock loaders for added
safety. Figure10: Forearm The forearm is configured as a ribbed shell
with six cover plates.Packaging all the required equipment in an EVA
forearm size volume is achallenging task. The six cover plates are
skewed at a variety of angles andkeyed mounting tabs are used to
minimize forearm surface area. Mounted on twoof the cover plates are the
wrist linear actuators, which fit into the forearmsymmetrically to
maintain efficient kinematics. The other four cover plateprovides mounts
for clusters of three finger motors (Figure 10). Symmetry isnot required
here since the flex shafts easily bend to accommodate odd angles.The
cover plates are also designed to act as heat sinks. Along with the
motors,custom hybrid motor driver chips are mounted to the cover plates.

3.6腕/前臂

 设计手法(图9)提供了无约束的经过,以最大化手指柔性轴的曲折半径,同一时候肖似加压宇宙航银行人员手套的花招节距和偏航行路线程。总路程为+/-
70度的俯仰和+/-
30度的偏航。这两条轴线互相交叉,并与前臂滚动轴的中央线相交。当与罗布onaut
Arm
[19]一而再时,这八个轴线结合在手段袖口的骨干,发生飞跃的运动学应用方案。袖套通过减震器安装在前臂上,以充实安全性。

图10:前臂前臂配置为带两个盖板的肋状外壳。将全部必要的设施包装在EVA前臂尺寸体积中是风姿洒脱项具备挑战性的天职。四个盖板以种种角度倾斜,何况利用键控安装接片来使前臂表面面积最小化。腕部直线执行器安装在五个盖板上,对称地定位在前臂上以维持高效的移位。其余三个盖板为多个手指马达组提供支架(图10)。这里没有须求对称,因为柔性轴轻松卷曲以适应奇异的角度。盖板也设计用作散热器。随着电机,定制混合电机驱动器微电路安装在盖板上。

4

Integration Challenges

As might be expected, many integrationchallenges arose during hand
prototyping, assembly and initial testing. Some ofthe issues and current
resolutions follow. Many of the parts in the hand useextremely complex
geometry to minimize the part count and reduce the size ofthe hand.
Fabrication of these parts was made possible by casting them inaluminum
directly from stereo lithography models. This process yieldsrelatively
high accuracy parts at a minimal cost. The best example of this isthe
palm, which has a complex shape, and over 50 holes in it, few of which
areorthogonal to each other. Finger joint control is achieved through
antagonisticcable pairs for the yaw joints and pre-load springs for the
pitch joints.Initially, single compression springs connected through
ball links to the frontof the dexterous fingers applied insufficient
moment to the base joints at thefull open position. Double tension
springs connected to the backs of thefingers improved pre-loading over
more of the joint range. However, desiredpre-loading in the fully open
position resulted in high forces during closing.Work on establishing the
optimal pre-load and making the preload forces linearover the full range
is under way. The finger cables have presented bothmechanical mounting
and mathematical challenges. The dexterous fingers usesingle mounting
screws to hold the cables in place while avoiding cable pinch.This
configuration allows the cables to flex during finger motion and yields
areasonably constant lever arm. However assembly with a single screw
isdifficult especially when evaluating different cable diameters. The
thumb usesa more secure lock that includes a plate with a protrusion
that securely pressesdown on the cable in its channel. The trade between
these two techniques iscontinuing. Similar cable attachment devices are
also evolving for the otherfinger joints. The cable flexibility makes
closed form kinematics difficult.The bend of the cable at the mounting
points as the finger moves is not easy tomodel accurately. Any closed
form model requires simplifying assumptionsregarding cable bending and
moving contact with the finger cams. A simplersolution that captures all
the relevant data employs multi-dimensional datamaps that are
empirically obtained off-line. With a sufficiently highresolution these
maps provide accurate forward and inverse kinematics data. Thewrist
design (figure 9) evolved from a complex multibar mechanism to a
simplertwo-dimensional slider crank hook joint. Initially curved ball
links connectedthe sliders to the palm with cams that rotated the links
to avoid the wristcuff during pitch motion. After wrist cuff and palm
redesign, the presentstraight ball links were achieved. The finger
leadscrews are non-back drivableand in an enveloping grasp ensure
positive capture in the event of a powerfailure. If power can not be
restored in a timely fashion, it may be necessaryfor the other Robonaut
hand [19] or for an EVA crew person to manually open thehand. An early
hand design incorporated a simple back out ring that throughfriction
wheels engaged each finger drive train and slowly opened each
fingerjoint. While this works well in the event of a power failure,
experiments withthe coreless brushless DC motors revealed a problem when
a motor fails due tooverheating. The motor winding insulation heats up,
expands and seizes themotor, preventing back-driving. A new contingency
technique for opening thehand that will accommodate both motor seizing
and power loss is beinginvestigated.

4整合挑衅

正如所料,在手工业原型,装配和开始测验中冒出了比超多合大器晚成挑战。当中部分难题和最近的减轻方案如下。手中的数不清零件都采取极度复杂的几何样子,以尽量收缩零器件数量并压缩手的尺寸。那么些零件的构建能够透过直接从立体光刻模型将它们铸造在铝中来达成。那个进度以微小的资金财产发生周旋高精度的预制零件。在那之中最佳的事例就是手掌,形状复杂,有50四个洞,在这之中很稀少相互正交的。

手指关节调节是经过用于偏航关节的对立丝缆对和用来俯仰关节的预加载弹簧完毕的。最先,通过球形连杆连选取灵巧指状物的前部的单个压缩弹簧在全开地方向基部关节施加不足的力矩。连接到手指背部的双李光弹簧改革了更加多大旨范围的预加载。但是,在一丝一毫展开地方期待的预加载在关闭时期形成较高的力。正在进行确立最好预加载和使预加载力在一切范围内线性化的行事。指状丝缆提议了形而上学装置和数学挑战。灵巧的手指派用单个安装螺钉将丝缆固定到位,同一时候防止丝缆夹紧。这种布署允许丝缆在手指运动时期盘曲并发生合理牢固的杠杆臂。可是,在评估不一致的丝缆直径时,使用单个螺丝钉进行组装很劳苦。拇指派用更安全的锁,此中囊括一块带有优秀部分的刚强,该平板可稳定地按压其通道中的丝缆。那二种本事之间的贸易正在继续。相符的丝缆连接装置也在为此外手指关节演化。丝缆的灵活性使密封式运动学变得紧Baba。手指运动时设置点处的丝缆卷曲不易准确建立模型。任何密封模型都需求简化有关丝缆盘曲和与手指凸轮接触的比如。捕获全部相关数据的更简约的消除方案选取凭涉世在线离线获取的多维数据图。具有丰盛高的分辨率,那些地图提供标准的正向和反向运动学数据。

手法设计(图9)从繁琐的多杆机构演化为更简约的二维滑块曲柄吊钩接头。最先盘曲的球形连杆将滑块连接到手心,并蕴藏凸轮,以便在俯仰运动时期旋转连杆以躲过腕带。在再一次规划手法袖口和手掌之后,完结了现阶段的直线球链接。手引导向螺纹钢筋不可逆向驱动(应该代表没电时不可能动,有电时能够双向动),何况在包络抓握中可保证在发出电源故障时落到实处正向捕捉。假若不能够登时还原重力,可能须求此外罗布onaut手[19]恐怕EVA机组人士手动展开手。

中期的手部设计组合了三个简易的退出环,通过摩擦轮啮合每种手指传动系,并缓缓张开各类手指关节。即便这种情状在产生电源故障时运营出色,但无芯无刷直流动机的实行发表了当电机由于过热而爆发故障时的标题。电机绕组绝缘加热,扩充并占用电机,幸免反向驱动。正在研讨意气风发种新的应急本事,用于张开将容纳Marcel维亚Bell格莱德死和功率损失的手。

5

Initial Finger Control Design and Test

Before any operation can occur, basicposition control of the Robonaut
hand joints must be developed. Depending onthe joint, finger joints are
controlled either by a single motor or anantagonistic pair of motors.
Each of these motors is attached to the fingerdrive train assembly shown
in figure 3. A simple PD controller is used toperform motor position
control tests. When the finger joint is unloaded,position control of the
motor drive system is simple. When the finger isloaded, two mechanical
effects influence the drive system dynamics. The flexshaft, which
connects the motor to the lead screw, winds up and acts as atorsional
spring. Although adding an extra system dynamic, the high ratio ofthe
lead screw sufficiently masks the position error caused by the state of
theflex shaft for teleoperated control. The second effect during loading
is theincreased frictional force in the lead screw. The non-backdrivable
nature ofthe motor drive system effectively decouples the motor from the
applied force.Therefore, during joint loading, the motor sees the
increasing torque requiredto turn the lead screw. The motor is capable
of supplying the torque requiredto turn the lead screw during normal
loading. However, thermal constraintslimit the motor’s endurance at high
torque. To accommodate this constraint, thecontroller incorporates force
feedback from the strain gauges installed on thelead screw shell. The
controller utilizes the non-back drivability of the motordrive system
and properly turns down motor output torque once a desired forceis
attained. During a grasp, a command to move in a direction that
willincrease the force beyond the desired level is ignored. If the
forced rops offor a command in a direction that will relieve the force
is issued, the motor revertsto normal position control operation. This
control strategy successfully lowersmotor heating to acceptable levels
and reduces power consumption. To perform jointcontrol, the kinematics,
which relates motor output joint output, must be determined. As
statedearlier, due to varying cable interactions a closed form
kinematics algorithm isnot tractable. Once the finger joint hall-effect
based position sensors arecalibrated using are solver, a semi-autonomous
kinematic calibration procedure forboth forward and inverse kinematics
is used to build look-up tables. Variationsbetween kinematics and
hall-effect sensor outputs during operation are seen inregions where the
pre-loading springs are not effective. Designs using differentspring
strategies are underdevelopment to resolve this problem. To enhance
positioningaccuracy, a closed loop finger joint position controller
employing hall-effect sensorposition feedback is used as part of this
kinematic calibration procedure. ableto successfully manipulate many EVA
tool.

5起初手指调整规划和测量检验

在别的操作发生早先,必需开销罗布onaut手关节的中坚地方调整。依据难题的例外,手指关节能够由单个电机或绝没错电机调节。种种电机都三回九转到图3所示的指尖传动系组件上。二个大约的PD调控器用于实施电机地点调整测验。

当手指关节卸载时,电机驱动系统的岗位调节很简短。

当手指装入时,四个机械效应会影响驱动系统的重力。

   
将电机连选用丝杠的柔性轴卷起并作为扭转弹簧。尽管扩充了叁个异常的种类动态,但高比率的丝杠足以覆盖由遥控操作的柔性轴状态引起的职分舍入误差。

加载进度中的第三个影响是增添了丝杠的摩擦力。电机驱动系统的不可逆性质使电机与施加的力有效地分别。因而,在枢纽加载期间,电时机见到转动丝杠所需的增添的扭矩。电机能够在正规负载时提供转动丝杠所需的扭矩。但是,热节制会限定电机在高转矩时的耐久性。为了适应这大器晚成约束,调整器将设置在导螺纹钢筋壳体上的应变仪的力反馈结合起来。调节器采纳电机驱动系统的无四驱动技能,并在达到规定的标准所需的力后科学地下落电机输出扭矩。在抓取进程中,将会沿着三个趋向移动的下令将被忽略,该方向会将力增至当先所需的水准。假如强制断电或在三个能够释放力的倾向爆发三个指令,电机将复苏不荒谬之处调控操作。该调控战术成功地将电机加热降到可接纳的品位并减弱功耗。

为了执行同步决定,必得明显与内燃机输出联合输出有关的移位本性。如前所述,由于丝缆人机联作效能的差异,密封格局的运动学算法不易管理。大器晚成旦基于手指关节霍尔效应的职分传感器使用解算器实行校准,则利用用高璇向和反向运动学的机动运动学园准程序来创设查找表。运转时期霍尔传感器输出与霍尔效应传感器输出之间的成形可知于预加载弹簧无效的区域。使用分裂弹簧战术的布署性不足以消除那一个主题材料。为增高定位精度,选拔霍尔效应传感器地方反馈的闭环手指关节地点调节器作为此活动学园准程序的一片段。能够成功调整非常多EVA工具。

SeveralexampletoolmanipulationsusingtheRobonauthand
underteleoperatedcontrolareshowninfigures11and12.
Figure11:ExamplesoftheRobonaut Handusingenvelopingpowergraspstoholdtools
An importantsafetyfeatureof thehand,itsabilityto
passivelycloseinresponsetoacontactonthebackof
thefingers,causesproblemsfor closedloopjoint
controlduringnormaloperation.Furtherrefinementof the
kinematiccalibrationandthestraingaugeforcesensorsirequiredtoreliablydeterminewhenthefingersarebeing
uncontrollablycosed.Oncethisinformation,
alongwithabettermodelforthedrivetraindynamicsisavailable,thejointcontrollercanbemodifiedtodistinguishteloaded
fromthenormaloperatingmode.Althoughconsiderableworkstillneedstobedone,joint
controlsatisfactoryforteleoperatedcontrolof thehand hasbeenattained. For
initial tests,the handwascontrolledin joint
modefrominputsderivedfromtheCyberglove®wornbytheoperator.TheCybergloveuses
bendsensors,whichareinterpretedbytheCyberglove
electronicstodeterminethepositionof 18actionsof theoperator’shand.
Someof theseactionsareabsolute
positionsoffingerjointswhileotherarerelativemotions
betweenjoints.Thechallengeisdevelopingamapping betweenthe 18
absoluteandrelativejointpositions determinedby
theCybergloveandthe12jointsof the Robonaut hand. Thismapping must result
in the Robonaut hand tracking the operator’s hand as well aspossible.
While some joints are directly mapped, others required heuristic
algorithmsto fuse data from several glove sensors to produce a hand
joint position command.In conjunction with an auto mated glove
calibration program, a satisfactory mappingis experimentally obtainable.

Figure12:ExamplesoftheRobonaut Hand

Using these custom mappings, operators are

using
dexterousgraspsforfinetoolmaipulationTofacilitatetestingofthehandbaselevelpadsasshown
infigures11,12werefabricatedfromDow Cornings Silastic®E.
Thepadsprovideanonslipcompliant surfacenecessary
forpositivelygraspinganobject.Thesepadswillserveasthefoundationfortactilesensorsandbe
coveredwithaprotectiveglove.Futureplansincludethedevelopment of
agraspcriteriameasureforthestabilityofthehandgrasp.Thesecriteriawillbeusedtoassisttheoperatorindeterminingif
agrasp isacceptable.Sincethebaselineoperationplandoesnot
involveforcefeedbacktotheoperator,visualfeedback onlymaybeinsufficient
toproperlydetermineif agraspisstable.Usingsomeknowledgeof
theobjectwhichisbeinggraspedinconjunctionwiththeexistingleadscrew
forcesensorsandasmallsetofadditional tactilesensors
installedonthefingersandpalm,thecontrolsystemwilldeterminetheacceptabilityof
thegraspandindicatethat measuretotheoperator.Theoperatorcanthendecide
howbestousethisdatainreconfiguringthegrasptoa
morestableconfiguration.Thisgraspcriteriameasurecouldevolveintoanimportantpartof
anautonomous graspingsystem. 6 Conclusions TheRobonaut Hand is
presented. This highly anthropomorphic human scale hand builtat the NASA
Johnson Space Center is designed to interface with EVA crewinterfaces
thereby increasing the number of robotically compatible
operationsavailable to the International Space Station. Several novel
mechanisms aredescribed that allow the Robonaut hand to achieve
capabilities approaching thatof an astronaut wearing a pressurized space
suited glove. The initial jointbased control strategy is discussed and
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